Types of daffodils, propagation, damage and diseases - Gardening (2023)

The daffodil, the symbol of spring, is a genus of flowering plants in a family of herbaceous perennials (living more than two years) known as daffodils.amaryllidaceae. The overall height of this daffodil genus is around 2.2 to 32 inches; Dwarf daffodils can only grow up to 3.3 inches. commonly saidnarcisoYnarciso. This genus includes nearly 50 species. It has been cultivated for several hundred years and now has several other cultivars used for horticultural and decorative purposes.

It is widely used in the cut flower industry and is widely grown in the Netherlands. Almost all parts, including the bulbs and flowers, are poisonous; with toxic alkaloids in them. The medicinal uses of these alkaloids, particularly galantamine, were developed to cure age-related Alzheimer's disease.

The daffodil or daffodil is the national flower of Wales. Giving daffodils to someone can have various motives related to happiness, hate, good culture and death. It is generally native to North Africa, Mediterranean regions and southern Europe.[1]Manafi, H. and F. Nazari, The influence of storage temperature on biochemical changes in autumn narcissus bulbs (Sternbergia lutea (L.) Ker Gawl. ex Spreng.) and its influence on interactions with…keep reading[2]Macneale, P., DIE NARZISSE.File.

Types of daffodils, propagation, damage and diseases - Gardening (1)

Description of plant parts.

Tepal is the term for its petals (undifferentiated sepals and petals). A single partially hollow main stem is called a scapose. The flowers may grow singly or the stem nodes may have multiple petals (20 flowers per cluster) called umbels. The sexual organs of the flowers are enclosed in a structure called the perianth, and the seeds are black.

Types of daffodils, propagation, damage and diseases - Gardening (2)
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Stem usually erect, straight (no further branches). The bulbs of the food storage organs are produced after the flowers and stems die. These bulbs will give rise to new plant bodies, flowers and stems the following spring. The seeds remain dormant in winter. The oval brown bulbs are produced underground. Narcissus species have narrow, long leaves. Its leaves are sessile or have petioles (they help part of the tubercles of the stem to move the leaves towards the sun).

Its flowers are hermaphrodites (they have both types of gametes, male and female, in the same flower). The flowers vary in color from white to yellow. There are different flower arrangements such as vertical type (N. cavanillesii), deflection type (N. triandrus), declining ascending type (N. alpestris = N. pseudonarcissus subsp. moschatus), horizontal type (N. gaditanus or N. poeticus) and in between the types of this genre[3]Gümüş, C., An overview of research on the narcissus plant (Pancratium maritimum L.). Derim (Turkey), 2015.File.

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Various shapes and shades of genera of daffodils are presented in the picture.

common species

1. The poetic narcissist

Extremely fragrant white flowers are seen on this species. It has a common name, the poet's daffodil is the most common and famous name for it. It is also known as peasant eyes and nargis. It is the most toxic of all when consumed. It is the first variety of Narcissus among all varieties. It is native to Western Europe[4]Ehrlich, C., P. Maupetit and M. Petrzilka, New organoleptically important components of absolute from narcissus (Narcissus poeticus L.). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1992. 4(1): p. 41-47.File.

Types of daffodils, propagation, damage and diseases - Gardening (5)

2. Narzisse pseudo-narcissus

The common name for this species is lily and it is also famous by the name wild daffodil. Its seeds are more in the dormant phase of the life cycle and can take 4 to 6 years to germinate and grow into a new flowering plant.

It is most commonly found in Germany, Wales and England. River Dove is famous as the natural habitat of this wild daffodil variety. In recent years, a cultivar of N. pseudonarcissus with bicolor daffodil flowers has been reported. An alkaloid called lycorine is mainly found in vegetable onions.[5]Sage, DO, J. Lynn and N. Hammatt, Somatic Embryogenesis in Narcissus pseudonarcissus cvs. Golden Harvest and St Keverne. Plant Science, 2000. 150(2): p. 209-2File.

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3. Narciso triandrus

The common name for this species is angel's tears. It is a low height variety. It only grows up to 12 inches (1 foot). It is also called a dwarf dwarf. The flower arrangement is of the mirrored type. It has creamy, yellowish flowers. It is adaptable to Mediterranean and northern environments.

The size of a plant can vary depending on the growing area. Its natural propagation is through pollination. An arthropod, Anthophora (Bombus), aids in natural pollination. This plant species has also won the prestigious Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit.[6]Sage, TL, et al., Differential development of oocytes after self- and cross-pollination: the basis of self-sterility in Narcissus triandrus (Amaryllidaceae). American Journal of Botany, 1999.…keep reading.

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4. Narzisse Junquillo

Narcissus jonquilla is also known as the fever daffodil. The other common name for this species is jonquil. Jonquil comes from many regions like Spain, Portugal, Italy, Turkey and France. This is also a bulbous flowering species with long, narrow, thin reed leaves. The appearance of the leaves is similar to that of reeds. All its varieties are used as ornamental plants. It is toxic to dogs and animals.[7]Roein, Z., M.H. Asil and B. Rabiei, Silver thiosulfate in relation to the shelf life of Narcissus cut flowers (Narcissus jonquilla). Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, 2009. 50(4): p. 308-312….keep reading.

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5. Papery-Daffodil

The genus Narcissus also has species of plants with white flowers. As its name suggests, it resembles the white paper that was made for writing in ancient times. This is mainly used as ornamental plants; especially in home gardens. The flowers have multiple flowers (dolmes).

Its flowers are also used to make perfumes due to their strong smell. The new plant grows its onion in almost all weather conditions. Direct sunlight damages the flower. Flowering is prolonged in indirect sunlight. Even containers of water are sufficient for the growth of new bulb seedlings.[8]Tarakemeh, A., et al., Detection of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in bulbs and tissue cultures of Narcissus papyraceus and four cultivars of N. tazetta. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis,…keep reading.

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propagation of daffodils

Of course, insect pollination is the basis for plant propagation and crossing. Important insects such as flies, hawk moths, dusk moths, butterflies and bees (Bombus) are recruited. Some species, such as the white paper species (Narcissus papyraceus), are pollinated with the help of cabbage moths.[9]Simón-Porcar, V.I., R. Santos-Gally and J. Arroyo, Long-tongued insects promote disorderly pollen transfer in Narcissus papyraceus (Amaryllidaceae) with dimorphic stylet. Ecology Magazine,.keep reading.

In general, two common methods are used to artificially propagate daffodils.

1. Department of pears

The bulbs of related species are cut into small pieces of 2 to 5 cm. then these bulbs are buried in fresh soil with adequate drainage capacity. For larger species, the bulb is buried a little deep in peaty soil with a mixture of other organic matter. The depth is 10-15 cm for larger species, while the depth for dwarf species should be less than 7 cm. A sunny location is preferred for planting. Bone meal is placed in the pit before the onions.

2. Convergence

The sowing depth of seeds for propagation is kept low. Humidity and shade are maintained for rapid seedling development. It may take 3 years for the first flowering. The seeds are only lightly covered with earth. Germination will be seen in 1 to 2 months. Transplanting to sunny areas is usually done in the fall, when the plant has already grown.[10]Hanks, G. R. and A. Rees, Dual-scale narcissus propagation: a review. Horticultural Science, 1979. 10(1): p. 1-14File.

taking care of daffodils

  1. When caring for daffodils, there are a few key points to remember.
  2. Adequate irrigation must be maintained.
  3. Sometimes a low level of nitrogen fertilizer is needed to improve flower growth and quality.
  4. When your daffodil is finished blooming, you'll need to cut the stems back to the ground.
  5. When your daffodil's foliage is completely dead; Use your bulbs for additional division propagation.
  6. Adequate sunlight is recommended for healthy flowering.
  7. The ideal soil pH should be between 6.0 and 8.
  8. A bone meal is a low nitrogen meal. It must be available at regular intervals.
  9. Let the leaves die off completely before propagating by dividing the bulb.
  10. In hot climates, direct sunlight can affect the quality of the buds.
  11. Spring food is absolutely essential.[11]Trinklein, D.H., Care of potted flowering plants (2014). Lawn and garden, 2014.File.

daffodil damage

Alkaloids extracted from narcissus are used to cure Alzheimer's disease. Lycorine is a chemical compound that belongs to the group of alkaloids. Daffodil bulbs have the highest lycorine content. Eating parts of this poisonous plant can cause severe stomach upset.

May cause vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain and severe diarrhea. It also damages the liver. Many reports have been recorded to represent their associations with low blood pressure problems and drowsiness. No deaths due to narcissus poisoning have been reported.

Another chemical, oxalate, is also found in the daffodil plant. These chemicals form crystals that are like needles. Oxalates can cause irritation and burning in the lips and throat. Skin irritation and inflammation have also been reported. Both chemicals are also toxic to pets like dogs, cats, and even horses.

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The solution to these problems lies in treating the symptoms. Vomiting and diarrhea can lead to dehydration. For irritation of the lips, throat and skin, wash the area with clean water. Immediate medical attention is recommended if symptoms persist. Plant this type of poisonous ornamental out of reach of pets and children. Keep an eye on the kids while they're around Narcissus[12]Juliano, C. G. and P. W. Mandris, Harmful Effects of Narciso and Its Components, in Narciso and Narciso. 2002, CRC Press. pg. 419-427.File.

Narcissus Diseases

Many viral pathogens damage the leaves of the genus Narcissus. Among these agents, common viruses are latent daffodil virus, white daffodil virus, daffodil degeneration virus, daffodil virus, and daffodil mosaic virus. These are transmitted by insect vectors (wasps and aphids).

Narcissus is also invaded by Pseudomonas sp. and P. carotovorum sp. Harmful insects are also of great importance in this context. Two main insects belonging to the order Diptera damage daffodils. Ditylenchus dipsaci (daffodil eel fluke) can cause a condition known as basal plate disease. Other nematodes have also been reported to damage daffodil roots.

Narcissus burn and root rot are caused by the fungi Botrytis narcissicola and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Botrytis is a pathological condition caused by Botrytis cinerea. In this fungal infection where improperly stored bulbs of the Narcissus genus suffer damage to their roots and the bulbs are severely damaged. There is another condition called blue mold rot.

This condition is caused by Penicillium sp. Black slime, leaf spot, white mold and rust lesions are caused by Sclerotinia bulborum, Peyronellaea curtisii, Ramularia vallisumbrosae and Aecidium narcissi, respectively.[13]Brunt, A. A review of problems and advances in the study of Narcissus viruses and viral diseases in Great Britain. in V. International Symposium on Viral Diseases of Ornamental Plants 110. 1980.File.

references

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references
1 Manafi, H. and F. Nazari, The effect of storage temperature on biochemical changes in autumn narcissus bulbs (Sternbergia lutea (L.) Ker Gawl. ex Spreng.) and its impact on interactions with photoperiod and morphological indices. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 2021. 43(1): p. 1-14File
2 Macneale, P., DIE NARZISSE.File
3 Gümüş, C., An overview of research on the narcissus plant (Pancratium maritimum L.). Derim (Turkey), 2015.File
4 Ehrlich, C., P. Maupetit and M. Petrzilka, New organoleptically important components of absolute from narcissus (Narcissus poeticus L.). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1992. 4(1): p. 41-47.File
5 Sage, DO, J. Lynn and N. Hammatt, Somatic Embryogenesis in Narcissus pseudonarcissus cvs. Golden Harvest and St Keverne. Plant Science, 2000. 150(2): p. 209-2File
6 Sage, TL, et al., Differential development of oocytes after self- and cross-pollination: the basis of self-sterility in Narcissus triandrus (Amaryllidaceae). American Journal of Botany, 1999. 86(6): p. 855-870.File
7 Roein, Z., M.H. Asil and B. Rabiei, Silver thiosulfate in relation to the shelf life of Narcissus cut flowers (Narcissus jonquilla). Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, 2009. 50(4): p. 308-312.File
8 Tarakemeh, A., et al., Detection of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in bulbs and tissue cultures of Narcissus papyraceus and four cultivars of N. tazetta. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2019. 172: p. 230-2File
9 Simón-Porcar, V.I., R. Santos-Gally and J. Arroyo, Tongue-long insets promote disordered pollen transfer in Narcissus papyraceus (Amaryllidaceae) with dimorphic stylet. Journal of Ecology, 2014. 102(1): p. 116-1File
10 Hanks, G. R. and A. Rees, Dual-scale narcissus propagation: a review. Horticultural Science, 1979. 10(1): p. 1-14File
11 Trinklein, D.H., Care of potted flowering plants (2014). Lawn and garden, 2014.File
12 Juliano, C. G. and P. W. Arbors, Harmful Effects of Narcissus and Its Components, in Narcissus and Narcissus. 2002, CRC Press. p. 419-427.File
13 Brunt, A. A review of problems and advances in the study of Narcissus viruses and viral diseases in Great Britain. in V. International Symposium on Viral Diseases of Ornamental Plants 110. 1980.File

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References

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